Several transformations rely on boolean and integer expressions that have a known value, known as opaque predicates and expressions. To construct these, data structures with precise invariants are added to the code.  

Options

At a minimum, you must create one or more opaque invariant data structures:
OptionArgumentsDescription
--Transform InitOpaque Add opaque initialization code. This initialization code has to be added to a function that gets called before any uses of opaque predicates, usually, but not necessarily, to main.
--InitOpaqueStructs list, array, input, env, * Comma-separated list of the kinds of opaque constructs to add. Default=list,array.
  • list = Generate opaque expressions using linked lists
  • array = Generate opaque expressions using arrays
  • input = Generate opaque expressions that depend on input. Requires --Inputs to set invariants over input.
  • env = Generate opaque expressions from entropy. Requires --InitEntropy.
  • * = Same as list,array,input,env
--InitOpaqueCount INTSPEC How many opaque data structures (lists or arrays) to add to the program. They will be split roughly evenly between the different declared opaque structures. Default=1.
--InitOpaqueSize INTSPEC Size of opaque arrays. Default=30.

To frustrate analysis, updates that maintain the invariants should be sprinkled throughout the program. This is done by the --Transform=UpdateOpaque option.

OptionArgumentsDescription
--Transform UpdateOpaque Add code that makes updates to opaque predicates.
--UpdateOpaqueCount INTSPEC How many updates to opaque data structures to add to the function. Default=1.
--UpdateOpaqueAllowAddNodes bool Is it safe to malloc new nodes for the opaque data structure in this function? Only set to true if the function is called sparingly. Default=false.
News: In --Transform=InitOpaque --Functions=foo, the function foo must execute before any use of an opaque expression. Easiest is to set --Transform=InitOpaque --Functions=main but this is best avoided since it is very obvious.
 

Issues

Tigress will generate copious numbers of extra local variables and statements of the form _*__BARRIER_* = 1, _*__BEGIN_* = 1, _*__END_* = 1. They will be removed by any competent compiler, or by the --Transform=CleanUp --CleanUpKinds=annotations transformation.

 

References